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Civil War Soldiers - Smith

Smith, Andrew J., major-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of Pennsylvania and was a cadet at the U. S. military academy from July 1, 1834 to July 1, 1838, when he was graduated and promoted in the army to second lieutenant in the 1st dragoons. He served at Carlisle barracks, Pa., in the cavalry school for practice, 1838-39; on recruiting service, 1839-40; on frontier duty at Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., 1840-46, and he was commissioned first lieutenant in the 1st dragoons on May 4, 1845. He served in the war with Mexico, 1847-48, being commissioned captain in the 1st dragoons on Feb. 16, 1847, and was on frontier duty at San Francisco, Cal., 1848-49. He was on recruiting service, 1849-53; stationed at Fort Lane, Ore., 1853-55; took part in the Oregon hostilities during the latter year, being engaged in the skirmish at Cow creek on Oct. 31; was in the Rogue River expedition in 1856, being engaged with hostile Indians in several skirmishes during March and June, and he was stationed at Fort Yamhill, Ore., 1856-57. He was on the Oregon war claims commission, 1857-58 and on frontier duty at Fort Walla Walla, Wash., 1858-59. He was at Fort Vancouver, Wash., 1859-60, and was engaged against the Snake Indians in skirmishes near Harney lake on May 24 and near Owyhee river on June 23. He was stationed at Fort Walla Walla, 1860-61, and was on the march to Nez Perce Agency in the latter year, being commissioned major in the 1st dragoons on May 13 and transferred to the 1st cavalry on Aug. 13. He served during the Civil war, first as colonel of the 2nd Cal. cavalry, to which position he was appointed on Oct. 2, 1861; was chief of cavalry, Department of the Missouri, from Feb. 11 to March 11, 1862, and of the Department of the Mississippi, March 11 to July 11, being engaged in the advance upon and siege of Corinth, April 15 to May 30, including several skirmishes. He was commissioned brigadier- general of volunteers, March 17, 1862; was in command of the troops in Covington, Ky., and vicinity, Sept. 9-Oct. 9; in command of a division in the movements through Kentucky, October-November; was stationed at Memphis, Tenn., Nov 28 to Dec. 21, and was on the expedition to the Yazoo river in December, being engaged in the assault of Chickasaw bluffs on Dec. 27-29. He was in the expedition to Arkansas Post, which was carried by assault on Jan. 11, 1863; in the Vicksburg campaign from January to July, commanding a division in the 13th army corps, and was engaged in the advance to Grand Gulf, the battles of Port Gibson, Champion's hill, Big Black river, assaults on Vicksburg, May 19 and 22, the siege of the place, and the capture of Jackson, Miss., on July 16. He was in command of the 6th division, 16th army corps, and District of Columbus, Ky., from Aug. 5, 1863, to Jan. 21, 1864; in command of the 3d division, 16th army corps, Jan. 24 to March 16, in the Department of the Tennessee; was in the Red River campaign, commanding detachments of the 16th and 17th army corps, March 6 to May 22, and was engaged in the assault and capture of Fort De Russy, the battle of Pleasant Hill, the action at Cane river, and in covering the retreat of Gen. Banks' army, with almost daily heavy skirmishing. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 5th cavalry on May 9, major-general of volunteers on May 12, and was in command of the right wing of the 16th army corps in the operations in Mississippi and Tennessee from June to September, being engaged in the actions near Lake Village and Tupelo, Miss., and on the expedition from Memphis to Holly Springs. He was engaged in the operations in Missouri, covering St. Louis from a threatened attack by Gen. Price; in command of a detachment of the Army of the Tennessee in Maj.-Gen. Thomas' campaign against the Confederates under Gen. Hood, from Dec, 1864 to Jan. 1865, being engaged in the battle of Nashville and the pursuit of the enemy to Pulaski. He was in the movement from Eastport, Miss., via Cairo, to New Orleans, Feb. 6-21, 1865; in command of the 16th army corps, Feb. 18-July 20, being brevetted brigadier- general U. S. A., on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of Tupelo, and the brevet title of major-general, U. S. A., was conferred upon him at the same time for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Nashville. He was engaged in the Mobile campaign, taking part in the siege of Spanish Fort, but was in reserve during the storming of Blakely. He was in the movement to and occupation of Montgomery, Ala., making detachments to various points in Alabama; was in command of the District of Montgomery, and later of the District of Western Louisiana, Oct. 27, 1865 to Jan. 15, 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. He was on the board for the recommendation of officers for brevet promotions from March 10 to June 22, and he was commissioned colonel of the 7th cavalry on July 28, 1866. He served in command of the District of Upper Kansas from Nov. 25, 1866 to Sept., 1867, and of the Department of Missouri from Sept. 14, 1867, to March 2, 1868, when he was given a leave of absence, and he resigned from the service on May 6, 1869. He was appointed postmaster of St. Louis, Mo., on April 3, 1869, and he pursued vocations of civil life until Jan. 22, 1889, when he was recommissioned colonel of cavalry and placed upon the retired list. Gen. Smith died on Jan. 30, 1897.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

Smith, Charles F., major-general, U.S. Army, was born in Pennsylvania about 1806. He was a son of the late Dr. Samuel B. Smith, U. S. A., graduated with honor at West Point in 1825, and was made second lieutenant of artillery on July 1 in the same year. In 1820 he was appointed assistant instructor in infantry tactics at West Point; in 1831 was promoted to the adjutancy, and in 1832 was made a first lieutenant. In 1838 he was appointed instructor in infantry tactics and commandant of cadets, and the same year was promoted to a captaincy. He took an important part in most of the battles during the Mexican war; in 1847 was brevetted major for gallant conduct in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, in Texas, and at the battles of Monterey, Contreras, and Churubusco, won the successive brevets of lieutenant-colonel and colonel. In the same year he was appointed acting inspector-general in Mexico. On Nov. 25, 1854, he was made major of the 1st artillery, and the following year lieutenant-colonel of the 10th infantry. In Sept., 1861, he was promoted to the colonelcy of the 3d infantry, having the previous month been appointed brigadier-general of volunteers and taken charge of the troops at Paducah, Ky. At the attack on Fort Donelson, the most brilliant charge was made by the troops under his command and had much to do with the surrender. For his gallantry on that memorable occasion he was promoted to a major- generalship in the volunteer army, and ordered to take possession of Savannah, Tenn., where he died of chronic dysentery contracted during the Mexican war, and fatally aggravated by his exposures in the campaign of the West. His death occurred on April 25, 1862.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

Smith, Giles A., major-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of New York but in early life established his home in the state of Illinois, where he was residing at the beginning of the Civil war. On June 14, 1861 he became the captain of a company then organizing for service as a part of the 8th Mo. infantry. Before the organization of the regiment was complete it was called on to suppress the guerrillas engaged in committing depredations along the line of the North Missouri railroad, defeating them in the vicinity of St. Charles and Mexico, in which engagements Capt. Smith got his introduction to actual warfare. On July 29 he left St. Louis with the regiment and on Sept. 7 landed at Paducah, Ky., where he remained until the following February, the regiment then joining the forces moving against Forts Henry and Donelson. Fort Henry surrendered before the regiment arrived, but at Donelson it showed the metal of which it was made, and, under the command of Gen. Lew Wallace, assisted in the repulse of the attempt of the enemy to cut his way out. Capt. Smith at the head of his company and under the command of Wallace was in some of the heaviest fighting at Shiloh on the second day of that battle; was in the engagements about Corinth, Miss., and the operations in that vicinity until November, when the regiment was ordered to Memphis, Tenn. He was promoted to lieutenant-colonel of his regiment on June 12, 1862, and eighteen days later was commissioned as its colonel. He joined Gen. Sherman's forces for the assault on the Confederate works at Chickasaw bluffs, where his regiment acquitted itself with credit, and a few days later was on the skirmish line in the assault on Arkansas Post. His was one of the regiments assigned to Steele's bayou expedition in the early movements against Vicksburg; took part in the feint against Haynes' bluff; was then in the battles of Raymond and Champion's hill, and in the advance on Vicksburg it was the first regiment to encounter and drive in the enemy's pickets. With his regiment he took part in the assaults on the Vicksburg works, and after the fall of that city was in the movement to drive Gen. Johnston from Jackson. On Aug. 4, 1863, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, and on Nov. 24, 1865, was commissioned major-general of volunteers. Previous to the latter date, on Sept. 1, 1864, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for long and continued service and for special gallantry and completeness as an officer during the Atlanta and Savannah campaigns. Gen. Smith was honorably mustered out of the service on Feb. 1, 1866 and returned to the pursuits of civil life, in which he continued until his death, Nov. 5, 1876.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

Smith, Green Clay, brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in Richmond, Ky., July 2, 1832. In 1847 he enlisted in a cavalry regiment and served a year in the Mexican war. He was graduated at Transylvania university in 1850 and at the Lexington law school in 1853; began practicing with his father; removed to Covington in 1858, and was elected to the legislature, where he defended the national government in 1860. In the following year he was commissioned major in the 3d Ky. cavalry; was appointed colonel of the 4th Ky. cavalry in Feb., 1862; was wounded at Lebanon, Tenn.; and was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, June 11. He resigned his commission, Dec. 1, 1863, having been elected to Congress, where he served till 1866, then resigned to accept the office of governor of Montana, where he remained three years. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, for gallantry in the field. In 1869 he was ordained to the ministry of the Baptist church and settled in Frankfort, Ky. He devoted most of his time to service as an evangelist, but in 1876 was the candidate of the National Prohibition party for the presidency, and received a popular vote of 9,522. In 1890 he was called to the pastorate of the Metropolitan Baptist Church, Washington, D. C., and he died in that city on June 29, 1895.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

Smith, Gustavus A., brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of Pennsylvania, but removed to Illinois and was residing in that state at the outbreak of the Civil war. He assisted in organizing and became the colonel of the 35th Ill. infantry in July, 1861, the regiment being accepted by the secretary of war on July 23, as Col. G. A. Smith's Independent Regiment of Illinois Volunteers. On Aug. 4 it left Decatur, Ill., and arrived at Jefferson barracks, Mo., the following day. With his regiment Col. Smith first experienced the realities of war in Feb., 1862, when he followed Price's retreating army, skirmishing with the Confederates nearly every day. He participated in the battle of Pea ridge, and in May moved to Farmington, Miss., and took part in the siege of Corinth until the evacuation of that place. On Sept. 19, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and served as such until March 4, 1863, when his commission expired and he was reverted to colonel of his regiment. In the following August with Hoge's brigade his command crossed the Tennessee river on pontoons and drove the Confederate pickets back while the bridge was being laid being the first infantry on the south side of the Tennessee river. His regiment participated in the battle of Chickamauga, following which, on Sept. 22, 1863, he left the service and returned to his home in Illinois. In Feb., 1865, he again entered the military service as colonel of the 155th Ill. infantry, the regiment being mustered in on Feb. 28 for one year. On March 2 he moved with his command via Louisville and Nashville to Tullahoma, Tenn., and was assigned to the brigade of Gen. Dudley. On March 13, 1865, Gen. Smith was given the brevet rank of brigadier-general of volunteers for faithful and meritorious service during the war, and on Dec. 14, 1865, he was honorably mustered out of the service. He then returned to the civil pursuits of life in which he remained until his death on Dec. 11, 1885.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

SMITH, GUSTAVUS W., Kentucky.
Major general, P. A. C. S., September 19, 1861.
Resigned February 11, 1863.
Died at New York city, June 24, 1896.

Commands.
May 31, 1861, commanding, temporarily, Army of Potomac, after the wounding of General Joseph E. Johnston. Commanding, July , 1861, Second Corps, Army of the Potomac. Commanding First Division, in Army of Northern Virginia, under General Joseph E. Johnston. Relieved General T. H. Holmes of command at Yorktown, Va. Division composed of the brigades of Whiting, Hood, Hampton, Pettigrew and Hatton. Acting Secretary of War, from November 17 to November 20, 1862. June 1, 1864, assigned command of Georgia Militia at and near Atlanta. September 1, same command. September 15, 1864, relieved General Wagner at Macon, Ga. Died in New York city, __.

Smith, Gustavus Woodson, born in Kentucky, appointed from Kentucky cadet United States Military Academy, July 1, 1838; graduated eighth in a class of fifty-six.
Brevet second lieutenant, engineers, July 1, 1842.
Second lieutenant, January 1, 1845.
First lieutenant, March 3, 1853.
Brevet first lieutenant, April 18, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct at the battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico, and
Captain, August 20, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Contreras. Mexico.
Resigned December 18, 1854.

Source: Military Records of General Officers of the Confederate States of America, by Charles B. Hall, 1898
 

Smith, John E., brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of Pennsylvania, but removed to Illinois and became aide-de-camp to Gov. Yates, which position he held during the early part of 1861. He was commissioned colonel of the 45th Ill. infantry in July of that year and was engaged successively at the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, Tenn., battle of Shiloh, siege of Corinth, action of Meadow Station, and the Mississippi campaign. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers in Nov., 1862, and was assigned to the command of the 8th division, left wing of the 16th army corps in December. He engaged in the expedition to Yazoo Pass, battles of Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion's hill and Big Black river. In June, 1863, he took command of the 1st division, 17th army corps, the division being transferred to the 15th army corps in September, and he was engaged at the siege of Vicksburg, battle of Missionary ridge, Atlanta campaign, Sherman's Georgia and Carolina campaign, and the battle of Bentonville, N. C. He was relieved from duty with the Army of the Tennessee in April, 1865, and commanded the District of West Tennessee until April, 1866, when he was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service. On Jan. 12, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for faithful and efficient services and for gallantry in action. In the regular army he was commissioned colonel of the 27th U. S. infantry in July, 1866, and on March 2, 1867, was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services at the siege of Vicksburg, Miss., and on the same date he was given the brevet title of major-general, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services at the capture of Savannah, Ga. He was retired from the regular army service on May 19, 1881, and he died Jan. 28, 1897.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

SMITH, E. KIRBY, Florida.
Lieutenant colonel, Corps of Cavalry, C. S. A., March 16, 1861.
Brigadier general, P. A. C. S., June 17, 1861.
Major general, P. A. C. S., October 11, 1861.
Lieutenant general, P. A. C. S., October 9, 1862.
General, P. A. C. S., February 19, 1862.
Died at Sewanee, Tenn., March 28, 1893.

Commands.
Chief of staff to General Joseph E. Johnston, commanding Army of the Potomac, June to July, 1861. Commanding Reserve Division, Army of the Potomac, July 2, 1861, consisting of the brigades of Trimble, Taylor and Elzey, brigade composed of the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Alabama, Fourteenth Mississippi and Thirty-eighth Virginia Regiments Infantry, Army of the Potomac. Commanding Department of East Tennessee and Kentucky, North Georgia and Western North Carolina, and the infantry divisions of Stevenson, McCown and Heth, and cavalry brigades of Forrest, Morgan, Scott and Ashby, March to October, 1862. Assigned, February 9, 1863, to the command of the Trans-Mississippi Department, with sub-divisions as follows : The District of Louisiana, first occupied by Major General R. Taylor's (afterward Major General Buckner's) Corps, consisting of Walker's and Polignac's Divisions of Infantry and Green's Cavalry Brigade; the District of Texas, occupied by Magruder's Corps, consisting of Forney's, McCulloch's and Wharton's Division; the District of Arkansas, occupied by Price's Corps, consisting of the divisions of Price and Churchill and the unattached brigades of Fagan, Shelby and Marmaduke; also, the District of the Indian Territory, under command of Major General Maxey.

Smith, Edmund Kirby, born in Florida, appointed from Florida cadet United States Military Academy, July 1, 1841; graduated twenty- fifth in a class of forty-one.
Brevet second lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, July 1, 1845.
Second lieutenant, Seventh Infantry, August 22, 1846.
First lieutenant, March 9, 1851.
Captain, Second Cavalry, March 3, 1855.
Major, January 31, 1861.
Brevet first lieutenant, April 18, 1847, for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico, and
Captain, August 20, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, Mexico.
Resigned April 6, 1861.

Source: Military Records of General Officers of the Confederate States of America, by Charles B. Hall, 1898
 

SMITH, M. L., Florida.
Major, Corps of Engineers, C. S. A., March 16, 1861.
Colonel Twenty-first Louisiana Infantry.
Brigadier general, P. A. C. S., April 11, 1862.
Major general, P. A. C. S., November 4, 1862.
Died July 29, 1866.

Commands.
April 16, 1861, assigned as engineer in chief of defenses of New Orleans. Commanding Third District, Department of South Mississippi and East Louisiana, June 26, 1862. Commanding Second Military District, Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, October 21, 1862. April , 1863, commanding a division in Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana. March 9, 1864, assigned to duty, temporarily, as chief of Engineer Bureau. April 16, 1864, assigned as chief engineer of the Army of Northern Virginia. July 20, assigned chief engineer of Army of Tennessee. January 4, 1865, relieved from duty at Mobile, Ala., and ordered to resume as chief engineer of military division of the West.

Smith, Martin Luther, born in New York, appointed from New York cadet United States Military Academy, July 1, 1838; graduated sixteenth in a class of fifty-six.
Brevet second lieutenant, topographical engineers, July 1, 1842.
Second lieutenant, November 1, 1843.
Brevet first lieutenant, May 30, 1848, for meritorious conduct while serving with the army in Mexico.
First lieutenant, March 3, 1853.
Captain, July 1, 1856.
Resigned April 1, 1861.

Source: Military Records of General Officers of the Confederate States of America, by Charles B. Hall, 1898
 

Smith, Morgan L., brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of New York, and in early manhood, on July 19, 1845, he joined the United States regular army in which he served five years. For some reason or other he enlisted under the name of Martin L. Sanford, and as such his name appears upon the rolls, as private, corporal and sergeant. After retiring from the regular army service he located in Missouri where he was living at the time of the outbreak of the Civil war. On July 4, 1861, he was commissioned colonel of the 8th Mo. infantry, which, before its organization was complete, was called upon to suppress the guerrillas engaged in committing depredations along the line of the North Missouri railroad, defeating them in the vicinity of St. Charles and Mexico. On July 29 he left St. Louis with his regiment and on Sept. 7 landed at Paducah, Ky., where he remained until the following February and then joined the forces moving against Forts Henry and Donelson. Fort Henry had surrendered before the regiment arrived, but at Donelson the regiment and its colonel behaved in a gallant manner, assisting in the repulse of the enemy when he attempted to cut his way out. Col. Smith was in some of the heaviest fighting at Shiloh on the second day of that battle, then participated in the advance upon Corinth, and while in that vicinity, on July 16, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He continued to serve in that capacity until the close of the war, rendering faithful and meritorious service, and on July 12, 1865, he resigned his commission and took up the threads of civil life. He died on Dec. 29, 1874.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

Smith, Thomas C. H., brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of Massachusetts, but was a resident of Ohio at the time of the out- break of the Civil war. On Sept. 5, 1861, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 1st Ohio cavalry, then being organized at Camp Chase for the three years' service. In December the regiment broke camp and proceeded by rail and steamboat to Louisville, being the first regiment of cavalry to enter that department. Col. Smith with his regiment participated in the advance upon Corinth, having frequent skirmishes with the enemy, and after the evacuation joined in pursuit of Beauregard's army, going as far as Booneville. During this pursuit four sharp engagements were had with the enemy. Returning to Kentucky with Buell's army, on Nov. 29, 1862, Col. Smith was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, but he remained with his regiment until April 27, 1863. On the first day of the battle of Stone's river the regiment made a heroic charge against a foe flushed with success, and it continued the remaining two days until the victory was complete. Gen. Smith continued in the service until some time after Lee's surrender and was mustered out of the volunteer service on Jan. 15, 1866. He then followed civil pursuits until April 17, 1878, when he was appointed paymaster in the regular army service with the rank of major, and he served as such until March 24, 1883, when he was retired. Gen. Smith died on April 8, 1897.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

Smith, Thomas Kilby, brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in Dorchester, Mass., Sept. 23, 1820. In 1825 his parents removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he studied at the military and engineering school of Prof. O. M. Mitchel, and, after spending some time in civil engineering, read law in the office of the late Chief-Justice Chase and was admitted to the bar, where he had for associates such men as George Hoadley, Stanley Matthews, Edward Marshall, and George Pugh. In 1861 he volunteered to raise a brigade of troops for the national service at his own expense, and Gov. Dennison appointed him lieutenant-colonel of the 54th Ohio infantry, and promoted him to the colonelcy before he left the state. His regiment was part of Gen. Sherman's division in the battle of Shiloh, and when Gen. Stuart, commanding the brigade, was wounded, the command was given to Col. Smith, who held it till the siege of Vicksburg. When Gen. Grant assumed the direction of the siege Col. Smith was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general and acted for some time as chief of Gen. Grant's staff. After the capitulation of Vicksburg Gen. Smith was given command of a division of the Army of the Tennessee to assist Gen. Banks in the Red River expedition, and succeeded in protecting Admiral Porter's fleet while withdrawing down the river after the disaster of Sabine cross-roads. He assisted in the reduction of Mobile and was then placed in command of the District of Southern Alabama and Florida, which was his last military service. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers for distinguished services in the war, and on being mustered out was appointed by President Johnson United States consul at Panama, holding the office till after the inauguration of President Grant. Gen. Smith died in New York city Dec. 14, 1887.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

SMITH, WILLIAM, Virginia.
Colonel, Forty-ninth Virginia Infantry, __, 1861.
Brigadier general, P. A. C. S., January 31, 1863.
Major general, P. A. C. S., August 30, 1863.
Resigned December 31, 1863, having been elected Governor of Virginia.
Died at Warrenton, Virginia, May 18, 1889.

Commands.
Brigade composed of the Fifty-eighth Virginia Regiment, Colonel Board; Fifty-second Virginia Regiment, Colonel Harman; Thirteenth Virginia Regiment, Colonel Terrell; Thirty-first Virginia Regiment, Colonel Hoffman; and Forty-ninth Virginia Regiment, Colonel Gibson, January , 1863. At the battle of Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863, brigade composed of Thirteenth, Forty-ninth, Fifty-second, Fifty-eighth and Thirty-first Virginia Regiments, Early's Division, Army of Northern Virginia.

Source: Military Records of General Officers of the Confederate States of America, by Charles B. Hall, 1898
 

Smith, William F., major-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of Vermont, and was a cadet at the U. S. military academy from July 1, 1841 to July 1, 1845, when he was graduated and promoted in the army to brevet second lieutenant of topographical engineers. He served as assistant topographical engineer on the survey of the Northern lakes, 1845-46; at the military academy as assistant professor of mathematics, Nov. 6, 1846, to Aug. 21, 1848; as assistant topographical engineer on explorations in the Department of Texas, 1848-50, being commissioned second lieutenant of topographical engineers on July 14, 1849. He was on the survey of the boundary between the United States and Mexico, 1850-52, on the survey of the canal route across Florida in 1853, and was commissioned first lieutenant of topographical engineers on March 3, 1853. He was on explorations in Texas, 1853-55; at the military academy as principal assistant professor of mathematics, Sept. 4, 1855, to Sept. 8, 1856; as engineer of the 11th light-house district, Dec. 11, 1856, to Nov. 3, 1859, and he was commissioned captain of topographical engineers on July 1, 1859, for fourteen years' continuous service. He then served as engineer secretary of the light-house board from Nov. 3, 1859, to April 15, 1861. He served during the Civil war, first on mustering duty at New York city, April 15 to May 31, 1861; on the staff of Maj.-Gen. Butler at Fort Monroe, Va., June 1 to July 20, and was commissioned colonel of the 3d Vt. infantry on July 16, 1861. He was on the staff of Brig- Gen. McDowell, July 20 to Aug. 13; served in the Manassas campaign and was engaged in the battle of Bull Run; in the defenses of Washington, D. C., July 27, 1861 to March 10, 1862, and he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on Aug. 13, 1861. He served in the Virginia Peninsular campaign, in command of a division of the Army of the Potomac, being engaged in the siege of Yorktown, including the skirmish of Lee's mill, the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, White Oak swamp, Savage Station, Glendale and Malvern hill. On June 28, 1862, he was brevetted lieutenant- colonel, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of White Oak swamp, and in the Maryland campaign he was in command of a division of the Army of the Potomac, being engaged in the battles of South mountain and Antietam, and on the march to Falmouth. On Sept. 17, 1862, he was brevetted colonel, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Antietam; participated in the Rappahannock campaign, in command of the 6th corps, Nov. 14, 1862 to Feb. 4, 1863, and of the 9th corps from Feb. 4 to March 17, being engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg. He was commissioned major of the corps of engineers on March 3, 1863, and was in command of a division in the Department of the Susquehanna, being engaged in the pursuit of the Confederate army retreating from Gettysburg, and was then in the Department of West Virginia from Aug. 3 to Sept. 5. He served as chief engineer of the Department of the Cumberland, Oct. 10 to November, and of the Military Division of the Mississippi from Nov., 1863 to March 31, 1864, in operations about Chattanooga, being engaged in surprising a passage and throwing a pontoon bridge across the Tennessee river at Brown's ferry, and he was also engaged in the battle of Missionary ridge. On March 9, 1864, he was commissioned major- general of volunteers, and was in command of the 18th corps of the Army of the Potomac from May 2 to July 19, being engaged in the operations before Richmond and in the battle of Cold Harbor and siege of Petersburg. He was on special duty, under the orders of the secretary of war, from Nov. 22, 1864 to Dec. 15, 1865, and was then on leave of absence until March 7, 1867, when he resigned from the regular army, having resigned his volunteer commission on Nov. 4, 1865. He was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. A., on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Chattanooga, and on the same date was given the brevet title of major- general, U. S. A., for gallant and meritorious services in the field during the Rebellion. He served as president of the International Telegraph company, 1864-73, and became Commissioner of Police of New York city on May 1, 1875, and then served as president of the Board of Police Commissioners from Dec. 31, 1875, to March 11, 1881. After this date he followed civil engineering in the service of the United States. He was reappointed as major, U. S. A., on March 1, 1889, and placed upon the retired list. Gen. Smith died on Feb. 28, 1903.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 

Smith, William S., brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in Tarlton, Ohio, July 22, 1830. He was graduated at the Ohio university in 1849 and from the U. S. military academy in 1853. Resigning from the army in 1854 he became assistant to Lieut.-Col. James D. Graham of the U. S. topographical engineers, then in charge of the government improvements in the great lakes. In 1855 he moved to Buffalo, N. Y., and for a while was principal of a high school. In 1857 he was employed by the city of Buffalo as an expert to examine the various plans submitted for the international bridge across the Niagara river. Later he became engineer and secretary of the Trenton (N. J.) locomotive works, holding that connection until 1861. He visited Cuba in the interests of this company and also constructed an iron bridge across the Savannah river, where he introduced improvements in sinking cylinders pneumatically. At the commencement of the Civil war in 1861 he promptly offered his services, and was appointed lieutenant-colonel of Ohio volunteers and assigned to duty as assistant adjutant-general at Camp Dennison. He was commissioned colonel of the 13th Ohio infantry on June 26, 1861, took part in the campaigns of western Virginia, then entered the Army of the Ohio and was present at Shiloh and Perryville. He became brigadier-general of volunteers, April 15, 1862, when he joined the forces under Grant and participated in the Vicksburg campaign as commander of the 1st division of the 16th corps. Later he was made chief of cavalry of the Department of the Tennessee, and in that capacity was attached to the staff of Gen. Grant and Gen. W. T. Sherman until failing health compelled his resignation in Sept., 1864. Resuming his profession after the war, he built the Wangoshanee lighthouse at the entrance of the Straits of Mackinaw, where he sank the first pneumatic caisson in 1867. He built the first great entire steel bridge in the world, across the Missouri river at Glasgow, Mo., and was concerned in the construction of many others, including those at Leavenworth, Kan., and Omaha and Plattsmouth, Neb. He was president of the Civil Engineers' club of the Northwest in 1880.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908
 


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