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Civil War Soldiers - Sherman

Sherman, Francis T., brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of Connecticut, and in early life located in Illinois, where he was residing at the time of the outbreak of the Civil war. After serving for a short period with the 56th Ill. infantry he was honorably mustered out on Feb. 5, 1862, and on March 8, following, he became major in the 12th Ill. cavalry. With his regiment he remained at Camp Butler, Ill., guarding Confederate prisoners until June 25, when he accompanied his command to Martinsburg, W. Va. He was again honorably mustered out on Aug. 26, 1862, and on Sept. 4, following, was promoted to colonel of the 88th Ill. infantry, organized at Chicago and known as the "Second Board of Trade Regiment." He accompanied this regiment to Louisville, Ky., going into camp below Jeffersonville, and led it in the engagement at Perryville. His next conflict with the enemy was in the battle of Stone's river, and he also participated in the battle of Chickamauga. His regiment with its gallant colonel in the lead formed part of the assaulting column upon the left center of the enemy's position at the battle of Missionary ridge, and was among the first to place its colors upon the enemy's works. He was with the advance, his regiment forming part of the 4th corps, throughout the whole of the Atlanta campaign, up to and including the capture of Atlanta participating in the following principal battles and skirmishes: Rocky Face ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope Church, Pine mountain, Mud creek, Kennesaw mountain, Smyrna Camp Ground, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station. He was also engaged in skirmishes at Columbia and Spring Hill, Tenn., and in the battle of Franklin, in which engagement his regiment was upon the right center, the main point of attack of the enemy. Col. Sherman was also engaged in the battle of Nashville, and continued to serve with his regiment until March 13, 1865, when he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. On Jan 15, 1866, he retired from military service and gave his attention to civil pursuits.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908

Sherman, Thomas W., brigadier-general, U.S. Army, was born in the state of Rhode Island in 1813, and was a cadet at the United States military academy from July 1, 1832 to July 1, 1836, when he was graduated and promoted in the army to second lieutenant in the 3d artillery. He served in the Florida war, 1836-38, and also in the Cherokee Nation, and was promoted to first lieutenant in the 3d artillery on March 14, 1838. He again served in the Florida war, 1838-42; in garrison at Fort Moultrie, S. C., 1842-44; on recruiting service, 1844-46; in the war with Mexico, 1846-48, being engaged in command of a battery in the battle of Buena Vista. He was promoted captain in the 3d artillery, on May 28, 1846, and was brevetted major on Feb. 23, 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Buena Vista. He was in garrison at Fort Trumbull, Conn., in 1848, at Fort Adams, R. I., 1849-53; and on frontier duty at Fort Snelling, Minn., 1853-57; in command of expedition to Yellow Medicine, Minn., 1857; quelling Kansas border disturbances, 1857-58, and he was at Fort Ridgely, Minn., as instructor in an artillery school for practice, 1858-61, except while in command of an expedition to Kettle Lake, Dak., in 1859. Upon the outbreak of the Civil war he was placed in command of a battery of U. S. artillery and battalion of Pennsylvania volunteers, at Elkton, Md., from April 24 to May 10, 1861, guarding the Philadelphia & Baltimore railroad and the Delaware canal. He was engaged in reopening communications through Baltimore, May 10-12, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 5th artillery on May 14, and brigadier-general of volunteers on May 17, and as chief of light artillery was engaged in the defense of Washington from May 21 to June 28. He was engaged in recruiting the 5th U. S. artillery in Pennsylvania, June 30 to July 27; in organizing an expedition for seizing and holding Bull's Bay, S. C., and Fernandina, Fla., for the use of the blockading fleet on the Southern coast, July 27 to Oct 21, and was in command of the land forces of the Port Royal expedition, Oct. 21, 1861, to March 31, 1862. He was in command of a division of the Army of the Tennessee from April 30 to June 1, in the advance upon and siege of Corinth, Miss., and in command of the center of the Army of Mississippi in pursuit of the enemy upon evacuating the place. He was in command of a division of the Department of the Gulf above New Orleans from Sept 18, 1862, to Jan. 9, 1863, in the defenses of New Orleans from Jan. 9 to May 19, and was in the expedition to Port Hudson, May 19-27, in command of the left wing of the army besieging the place, being engaged in several skirmishes and in the assault upon the works, May 27, when, in leading a column to the assault, he lost his right leg. He was commissioned colonel in the 3d artillery on June 1, 1863, but was disabled by his wound until Feb. 15, 1864, when he was placed in command of the reserve brigade of artillery, Department of the Gulf, and was stationed at Forts Jackson and St. Philip, La., from March 1 to May 4. He was in command of the defenses of New Orleans from June 16, 1864, to Feb. 11, 1865, of the southern division of Louisiana from Feb. 11 to July 23, and of the eastern district of Louisiana from July 23, 1865, to April 20, 1866. He was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. army, on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services at the capture of Port Hudson, La., and was given the brevets of major-general of volunteers and major-general U. S. A., at the same time for gallant and meritorious services during the rebellion. He was mustered out of the volunteer service on April 30, 1866, after which he served in command of a regiment and the post of Fort Adams, R. I., with but a few months intermission until Feb., 1869; then was stationed at Key West, Fla., until Nov. 29, 1870. He retired from active service on Dec. 31, 1870, as major-general, for disability caused by the loss of a leg in battle, and he died at Newport, R. I., on March 16, 1879.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908

Sherman, William T., lieutenant-general, U.S. Army, was born at Lancaster, Fairfield county, Ohio, Feb. 8, 1820. Left an orphan at nine years of age, he was adopted by Thomas Ewing, later secretary of the interior, and attended school at Lancaster until 1836, when he was appointed a cadet at the West Point military academy. Graduating in 1840, sixth in a class of forty-two, he was made a second lieutenant and assigned to duty in Florida, where he was engaged from time to time in incursions against the hostile Seminole Indians. On Nov. 30, 1841, he was promoted to first lieutenant, and until the outbreak of the Mexican war, was stationed at various posts in the South, including St. Augustine, and Forts Pierce, Morgan and Moultrie. At one time he undertook the study of law, with no thought of making it his profession, but to be prepared "for any situation that fortune or luck might offer." In 1846 he was stationed at Pittsburg, as recruiting officer, but shortly after, in consequence of repeated applications for active service, was sent to California, where, contrary to expectation, he was uneventfully engaged as acting assistant adjutant-general of the 10th military department under Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, and later under Col. R. B. Mason. In 1850 he returned to the Atlantic states as bearer of despatches, and was stationed at St. Louis, Mo., as commissary of subsistence with the rank of captain. In March, 1851, he received the commission of captain by brevet, to date from May 30, 1848. On Sept. 6, 1853, he resigned from the army and became manager of the branch banking-house of Lucas, Turner & Co., at San Francisco, Cal. In 1857 he returned to New York and, his firm having suspended, opened a law office in Leavenworth, Kan., with Hugh and Thomas E. Ewing, Jr. In July, 1859, he was elected superintendent of the Louisiana military academy, with a salary of $5,000 per annum, the institution opening Jan. 1, 1860, but on the seizure of the arsenal at Baton Rouge in Jan., 1861, in anticipation of the secession of the state, he tendered his resignation. Going to Washington, he endeavored in vain to impress upon the administration the gravity of the situation which he characterized as "sleeping upon a volcano," and the president's call for volunteers for three months as "an attempt to put out the flames of a burning house with a squirtgun." For two months he was president of the 5th street railway of St. Louis, Mo., and on May 14, 1861, was made colonel of the 13th regiment of regular infantry, commanding a brigade in the division of Gen. Tyler in the battle of Bull Run, July 21. On Aug. 3 he was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from May 17, and on Oct. 7 relieved Maj.-Gen. Anderson in command of the Department of Kentucky. On Nov. 12, however, he was in turn relieved by Gen. D. C. Buell, his estimate of the number of troops required in his department, "sixty thousand men to drive the enemy out of Kentucky and 200,000 to finish the war in this section." being considered so wildly extravagant as to give rise to doubts of his sanity. It was, however, justified by later events. During the remainder of the winter he was in command of the camp of instruction at Benton barracks, near St. Louis, and when Grant moved upon Donelson, was stationed at Paducah, where he rendered effective service in forwarding supplies and reinforcements. Here, also, he organized the 5th division of the Army of the Tennessee from raw troops who had never been under fire, and with these he held the key point of Pittsburg landing and "saved the fortunes of the day" on April 6, and contributed to the glorious victory of the 7th, although severely wounded in the hand on the first day. On the second, he had three horses shot under him, but mounting a fourth he remained on the field, and it was the testimony of Gen. Grant, in recommending his promotion, that "to his individual efforts I am indebted for the success of that battle." On May 1 he was commissioned major-general of volunteers and on July 1 was put in charge of the Department of Memphis, which he at once proceeded to organize, restoring the civil authorities, causing a revival of business, and sternly repressing guerrilla warfare. In October he concerted with Gen. Grant at Columbus, Ky., the details of the ensuing campaign, in which Pemberton's force, 40,000 strong, was dislodged from the line of the Tallahatchie and driven behind the Yalabusha in consequence of a combined movement by both generals from Jackson and Memphis, while 5,000 cavalry under Washburne threatened his communications in the rear. Falling back to Milliken's bend, Sherman resigned his command to Gen. McClernand, but shortly afterward suggested and led the attack on Fort Hindman with its garrison of 5,000 men by which the control of Arkansas river was gained, the key to the military possession of the state, with the loss of but 134 killed and 898 wounded, while of the enemy, 150 were killed and 4,791 taken prisoners. In the campaign of 1863 Sherman was in command of the expedition up Steele's bayou, abandoned on account of insuperable difficulties, though he dispersed troops sent to oppose the movement; and the demonstration against Haynes' bluff was also committed to him, though with some hesitation, by Gen. Grant, lest his reputation should suffer from report of another repulse. In the Vicksburg campaign of 109 days Gen. Sherman entitled himself, in the words of Gen. Grant, "to more credit than usually falls to the lot of one man to earn." The drawn battle of Chickamauga and the critical condition of Rosecrans at Chattanooga called next loudly for the troops resting at Vicksburg, and on Sept. 22 Sherman received orders to forward his divisions, with the exception of one which remained to guard the line of the Big Black. Meanwhile Gen. Grant, having been placed in command of the Division of the Mississippi, assigned the Department of the Tennessee to Sherman, who, on the receipt of telegraphic summons to "drop all work" and hurry eastward, pushed forward in advance of his men and reached Chattanooga on Nov. 15. It was proposed that he initiate the offensive, which he proceeded to do upon the arrival of his troops, Nov. 23. He pitched his tents along Missionary ridge and his sentinels were clearly visible, not a thousand yards away. The battle of Missionary ridge being won, the relief of Burnside on the Hiawassee was next to be contemplated and with weary troops who two weeks before had left camp with but two days' provisions and "stripped for the fight," ill supplied now and amid the privations of winter, Sherman turned to raise the siege of Knoxville. On Jan. 24, 1864, he returned to Memphis, and in preparation for the next campaign decided upon the "Meridian Raid." To the expedition of Gen. Banks up the Red river he next contributed 10,000 men for thirty days, but the force did not return to Vicksburg until more than two months had elapsed, too late to take part in the Atlanta campaign. On March 14 Gen. Grant was appointed lieutenant-general to command all the armies of the United States in the field, and Sherman succeeded to the Division of the Mississippi. On May 6 the movement toward Atlanta was started with the capture of the city as the desideratum, and such progress was made that on Aug. 12 the rank of major-general, U. S. A., was bestowed upon Gen. Sherman by the president, in anticipation of his success. After indefinite skirmishing for a month, following the fall of Atlanta, and during which the gallant defense of Allatoona pass was made by Gen. Corse with 1,944 men against a whole division of the enemy, the famous "march to the sea" was resolved upon, not alone as a means of supporting the troops, but, in Sherman's own words, "as a direct attack upon the rebel army at the rebel capital at Richmond, though a full thousand miles of hostile country intervened," and from Nov. 14 until Dec. 10 he was accordingly buried in the enemy's country, severed from all communication in the rear, and crossed the three rivers of Georgia, passing through her capital in his triumphal progress of 300 miles, during which his loss was but 567 men. On Dec. 2, he telegraphed to President Lincoln, "I beg to present you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah with 150 heavy guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about 25,000 bales of cotton," in reply to which he received the assurance that to him alone the honor of his undertaking was due, as acquiescence only had been accorded him, and anxiety, if not fear, had been felt for his success. The surrender of Johnston was made at Durham station, N. C., on April 26, 1865, after a triumphal march of Sherman's army through the Carolinas, and on May 24, a year after it had started on its journey of 2,600 miles, the conquering host was reviewed at Washington, D. C. On June 27 Gen. Sherman was placed in command of the military division of the Mississippi, which included the departments of Ohio, Missouri, and Arkansas, and on July 25, 1866, he succeeded Gen. Grant as lieutenant-general of the army. On March 4, 1869, when Grant was inaugurated as president, Sherman became general of the army, and in 1871-72, on leave of absence, made a tour of Europe and the East. On Feb. 8, 1884, he was retired from active service, and on Feb. 14, 1891, expired at New York, the day following the demise of his friend and comrade in arms, Adm. David D. Porter.

Source: The Union Army: A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States 1861-1865, Volume 8 Biographical, 1908

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